Creating and managing references

1. Creating references

Citing is a legal way of using source authored by someone else in your own paper and provides your readers with all data necessary to find this source. Always remember that referring to other documents is essential part of conducting research and that without proper citing, you will be accused of plagiarism - the unacknowledged use of words and ideas of others.

The citation style used at the Pomeranian Medical University is based on Vancouver style. Vancouver is a numbered referencing style used commonly in medicine and science which consists of a proper citation indicated as a number in the text and a numbered reference list at the end of the document, where full details of a corresponding publications are shown.

A number referring to a citation should be placed at the end of a cited sentence like in the example below:


…with more than 90% mortality rate if untreated [3].


Citations are numbered consecutively in the order in which they appear in the document. Because each number is attributed to a publication, if it is cited more than once, the same number should be used.

A numbered list of references should be provided at the end of the document with all necessary bibliographic data. The information needed to include a correct reference can differ depending on source type. Below you may find general data scheme with punctuation and example references for three most common publication types cited in medicine – journal articles, books and book chapters.

You may get further information in an official Citing Medicine style guide available here or review examples for all publication types here.